Monday, 26 October 2020 15:43

TF Series Tube Furnaces

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TF Series Laboratory Technician Insert Crucible into Tube Furnace

TF Series Tube Furnaces

The LECO Cornerstone® TF Tube Furnaces are versatile, energy-efficient resistance furnaces designed for baking crucibles to reduce contaminants that would interfere with analytical results.

  • Long-life molybdenum disilicide heating elements have an operating temperature range of 800 °C to 1350 °C
  • Integrated digital furnace controller displays set point or actual temperatureand provides overtemperature protection
  • TF4 Quad Tube Furnace system has six heating elements
    • Allows operator to burn off crucibles in four combustion tubes for demanding, high-volume installations supplying two to four units
  • TF2 Dual Tube Design has four heating elements
    • Efficiently supplies lower volume installations of one to two systems

The table below illustrates the impact of preheating 528-018 Crucibles on carbon and sulfur results of a high purity iron reference material certified at 5 ppm carbon and 2 ppm sulfur (1250 °C for 15 min).

tf crucible blank furnace comparisons

The new furnace design and increased crucible capacity use 60% less energy than the previous models for significant savings inoperating costs. The chart below exhibits the differences in operating costs while operating the various systems at 1350 °C, considering continuous operation with a full load of crucibles.
 
tf tube furnace efficiency comparison
 

 

 

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TF Series Details

Carbon and Sulfur Analysis by Combustion with the CS844

  • Models
    1. TF4 Quad Tube Furnace

    1. TF2 Dual Tube Furnace

828 Series Macro Combustion | Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Protein Determinator | LECO

828 Series Macro Combustion
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Protein Determinator


By incorporating state-of-the-art hardware and an on-board, touch-screen software platform, the 828 Series allows you to easily handle a wide range of sample applications. The the core capabilities and performance of previous generations of LECO macro combustion instruments have been maintained, while key improvements have been made in throughput, uptime, and reliability. All 828 Series models are compatible with the S832 add-on providing independent sulfur determination. Macro sample mass capability paired with cycle times as fast as 2.8 minutes make the 828 an ideal instrument for a diverse applications base, while delivering unparalleled sample analysis throughput.

  • Maximize laboratory productivity with unmatched sample throughput
  • Rapid cycle time of 2.8 minutes for added productivity on FP/CN models
  • Extended reagent lifetimes optimize instrument up-time
  • Easy access to common maintenance areas reduces downtime and time required for routine maintenance.
  • Rugged 30-sample autoloader with optional expanded capacity for up to 120 samples maximizes lab efficiency.
  • Ergonomic, operator-centered design with boom-mounted touch-screen interface
  • Expanded furnace efficiency and reliability with a regent-free design

Applications

The 828 series is ideal for the following applications: Feeds, Pet Foods, Grains and Cereals, Milled Products, Fermentation Products, Dairy Whey and Cheese Products, Soils, Sediments, Fertilizers, Plant Tissue, Waste Materials, Resins and Polymers, Coal and Coke, Biomass Materials, and Petroleum Products and Additives.

The 828 Series determines nitrogen/protein, carbon/nitrogen and carbon/hydrogen/nitrogen in a multitude of organic matrices from food/feeds and soils to fuels. The system utilizes a combustion technique with a vertical quartz furnace designed to handle diverse sample matrices with rapid cycle times and extended reagent lifetimes, delivering unsurpassed throughput coupled with superior instrument uptime. To begin an analysis, the sample is weighed into a tin capsule or encapsulated within tin foil and placed into the loader. A fully automated analysis sequence transfers the sample to a sealed purge chamber, where atmospheric gas is removed. The purged sample is transferred automatically into a reticulated ceramic crucible within the furnace. To ensure complete and rapid combustion (oxidation) of the sample, the furnace environment is composed of pure oxygen with a secondary oxygen flow being directed to the sample within a reticulated crucible via a quartz lance. In the FP and CN828 models, the combustion gases are swept from the furnace through a thermoelectric cooler to remove moisture and are collected in a ballast volume. In the CHN828 model, combustion gases are swept from the furnace through an afterburner containing reagent to scrub sulfur compounds from the gas stream prior to collection in the ballast volume. The gases equilibrate and mix within the ballast before a representative aliquot of the gas is extracted and introduced into a flowing stream of inert gas for analysis. Depending upon the analyzer model, the aliquot gas is carried to a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) cell for the detection of carbon (as carbon dioxide) and a thermal conductivity cell (TC) to detect nitrogen (N2). In the CHN828 model, the ballast gas is also transferred to a H2O NDIR cell for the determination of hydrogen. Unlike NDIR cells, TC cells are chemically non-specific, so a series of reagents and scrubbers are used to ensure quantitative detection of N2 without chemical interference. A heated reduction tube, filled with copper, is used to convert nitrogen oxide species (NOx) to N2 and remove excess oxygen. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is removed by LECOSORB and water vapor (H2O) is removed by Anhydrone.

Careful sequencing of the analysis provides maximum sample throughput by interleaving the sample loading sequence with quantitation of the aliquot gases from the previous sample.

Many diagnostic sensing capabilities are included in the 828 Series analyzer. Multiple Pressure Transducers (PT) have been included to provide the ability to leak check individual segments of the flow path.

 

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828 Series Details

Carbon/Hydrogen/Nitrogen/Protein Determinator 828 Series

  • Models
    1. FP828 Nitrogen/Protein

    1. FP828P Nitrogen/Protein Performance Package

    1. CN828 Carbon/Nitrogen
    1. CHN828 Carbon/Hydrogen/Nitrogen

GDS900 | Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometer | LECO

GDS900 Glow Discharge Spectrometer
Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometer


Our GDS900 Glow Discharge Spectrometer (GDS) offers you state-of-the-art technology designed specifically for your routine elemental determination in most conductive solid matrices. User-friendly Cornerstone® brand software is brought to the platform for increased usability, simplified reporting, and streamlined analysis times—saving you time in your lab.

  • The glow discharge source brings a number of advantages including:
    • Simple, linear calibrations when compared to other sources
    • Controlled excitation that occurs away from the sample surface
    • Reduced reference material consumption
  • Detection system ensures stability, flexibility, and performance
    • Full wavelength coverage from 160 nm to 460 nm
    • 50 pm (0.050 nm) resolution to differentiate even the most complex features of bulk spectra
  • Automatic cleaning between samples saves time, minimizes matrix effects for increased precision

Applications

The GDS900 is ideal for the following applications: steel, iron (including as-cast), aluminum, copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, tungsten, and titanium materials.

Glow Discharge Spectrometry (GDS) is an analytical method for direct determination of the elemental composition of solid samples. A prepared flat sample is mounted on the glow discharge source, the source is evacuated and backfilled with argon. A constant electric field is applied between the sample (cathode) and the electrically grounded body of the lamp (anode). These conditions result in the spontaneous formation of a stable, self–sustained discharge, which is called a glow discharge. The applied current is regulated by the power supply and the lamp voltage is held constant through regulation of the argon pressure. As soon as the plasma is initiated, inert gas ions formed in the plasma are accelerated by the electric field toward the sample (cathode). Through a process called cathodic sputtering, kinetic energy is transferred from the inert gas ions to the atoms on the sample surface, which causes some of these surface atoms to be ejected into the plasma.
 
Once the atoms are ejected into the plasma, they are subject to inelastic collisions with energetic electrons or metastable argon atoms. Energy transferred by such collisions causes the sputtered atoms to become electrically excited. The excited atoms quickly relax to a lower energy state by emitting photons. The wavelength of each photon is determined by the electronic configuration of the atom from which it was emitted. Since each element has a unique electronic configuration, every element can be identified by its unique spectrochemical signature or emission spectrum.
 
A spectrometer is used to measure the emission signals from the glow discharge. In order to ensure that the media within the spectrometer is transparent to ultra-violet light (160-460 nm), the entire optical system is purged with argon. Photosensitive Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays are positioned at the focal plane in such a manner that the complete emission spectrum is recorded from 160 to 460 nm. The CCD arrays convert the spectrum into an electrical signal, which is digitized and processed to remove dark current signal, normalize the pixel response, extend the dynamic range, and eliminate pixelation. Since the number of photons emitted by each element is proportional to its relative concentration in the sample, analyte concentrations can be deduced by calibration with reference samples of known composition.
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GDS900 Details

Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometer GDS900

  • Models
    1. GDS900DCBO - GDS900 for Bulk Elemental Analysis (160 to 460 nm)

    1. GDS900DCEXBO - GDS900 for Bulk Elemental Analysis and Extended Wavelength Range (160 to 850 nm)

  • Options
    1. Integrated desk or mobile workstation

    1. Extension spectrometer extends spectral coverage from 460 to 850 nm

    1. Vacuum pump sound abatement enclosure

  • Featured application
    Low Alloy Steels
  • Product literature
    GDS900
  • Consumables


RHEN602 Inert Gas Fusion | Hydrogen Determination by Inert Gas Fusion | LECO

RHEN602 Inert Gas Fusion
Hydrogen Determination by Inert Gas Fusion


Determine the hydrogen content (at low levels <2 ppm) in your aluminum, other metals, refractories, and inorganic materials with our RHEN602. Multiple method selections assure optimal furnace and analysis settings for each sample matrix. Onboard diagnostics minimize your downtime and keep your lab running smoothly. 

  • Improved furnace operating parameters optimize sample size, accuracy, and precision
  • Advanced electrode furnace operating system for more detailed temperature profiles, programmable ramping, and complete control of set points
  • Up to 6 g nominal sample weight offering improves precision
  • Improved sensitivity to 0.05 ppm at 1 g sample mass
  • Calibration by gas dose or standards
  • Pre-defined application techniques
  • State-of-the-art solid-state thermal conductivity (TC) technology
  • Easy-to-use Windows®–based operating system maximizes flexibility for production and research applications
  • SmartLine® Remote Diagnostics allows LECO service to connect directly to your instrument for quicker solutions and maximized up-time

The RHEN602 hydrogen by inert gas fusion system is designed for precise measurement of hydrogen content of steel, refractory metals, aluminum alloys, and other inorganic materials. A pre-weighed sample is placed in a graphite crucible which is heated in an impulse furnace to release analyte gases. Oxygen present in the sample reacts with the graphite crucible to form CO and CO2. Nitrogen and hydrogen are extracted as N2 and H2 respectively. Argon carrier sweeps the liberated analyte gases out of the furnace. The gas then flows through Schutze reagent where the CO is oxidized to form CO2. The CO2 and any H2O present is then scrubbed out of the carrier gas stream, leaving nitrogen and hydrogen. A patented Dynamic Flow Compensation (DFC) system is used to add carrier gas as a makeup for the gas lost during the scrubbing process. A molecular sieve column separates the nitrogen from the hydrogen. The smaller hydrogen molecule passes through the sieve mores more quickly than the larger nitrogen molecule, and is detected using a Thermal Conductivity (TC) detector. The nitrogen molecules are then allowed to pass through undetected.

TC detection takes advantage of the difference in thermal conductivity between carrier and analyte gases. Resistive TC filaments are placed in a flowing stream of carrier gas and heated by a bridge circuit. As analyte gas is introduced into the carrier stream, the rate at which heat transfers from the filaments will change, resulting in a measurable deflection in the bridge circuit. TC detectors are inherently linear and have high sensitivity. The concentration of an unknown sample is determined relative to calibration standards. To reduce interferences from instrument drift, reference measurements of pure carrier gas are made prior to each analysis.

The RHEN602 features advanced furnace control and associated software that supports the separation and measurement of surface and bulk hydrogen in aluminum and aluminum alloy samples, especially at low levels (<2 ppm). This is done in accordance with ASTM Standard E2792, 2013, “Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrogen in Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys by Inert Gas Fusion,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org.

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RHEN602 Details

Hydrogen Determination by Inert Gas Fusion with the RHEN602

  • Models
    1. RHEN602 Hydrogen Determinator (Fusion)



DH603 Hot Extraction | Residual and Diffusible Hydrogen Determination | LECO

DH603 Hot Extraction
Residual and Diffusible Hydrogen Determination


Your hydrogen determinations in ferrous alloys are delivered quickly and precisely with our DH603 which uses residual, diffusible, and total hydrogen measurements. A small footprint, user-friendly operating software, increased instrument safety, and reliability are all part of the advanced DH603 design to truly streamline your hydrogen determination. 

  • Exclusive ECLIPSE architecture—a unique design by LECO that improves reliability and serviceability
  • A variety of evacuated pin tubes and diffusible samplers for quick and easy hydrogen determination of molten metals
  • Improved plumbing offers faster maintenance of flow path
  • Easily accessible components to the operator thanks to ergonomic shells
  • The state-of-the-art furnace control system allows for temperature ramping from ambient to 1100°C
  • Optional diffusible sampler piercer—you have the choice of diffusible, residual/total hydrogen determination
  • Gas dose calibration allows for calibration without reference materials

The DH603 determines the amount of residual (total) hydrogen—or diffusible and residual hydrogen with the optional piercer—in iron and ferrous alloys with a single instrument. The determinator features a user- friendly operating system and advanced furnace control.

Residual (total) hydrogen determination involves placing a pre-weighed sample into the furnace, allowing the hydrogen to be evolved by hot extraction into the flowing gas stream. Samples may be collected using a LECO vacuum pin tube or a similar technique. The hydrogen content is measured by a thermal conductivity detector. Final results are displayed in parts-per-million.

Diffusible and residual hydrogen determination involves placing a sampler in the optional piercing unit, which punctures the sampler, allowing the diffused molecular hydrogen to be purged into the carrier gas stream. The hydrogen is measured by a thermal conductivity detector. The sampler is then removed from the piercing unit and the outer shroud is removed, exposing a pin sample for residual hydrogen analysis. The sample is then weighed and placed into the resistance furnace, allowing the residual hydrogen to be introduced into the carrier gas stream by hot extraction. The hydrogen content is measured by a thermal conductivity detector. Final results are displayed in parts-per-million.

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DH603 Details

Residual and Diffusible Hydrogen Determination by Hot Extraction with the DH603

  • Models
    1. DH603DC with diffusible piercer

    1. DH603C 



736 Series Inert Gas Fusion | Oxygen and Nitrogen by Inert Gas Fusion | LECO

736 Series Inert Gas Fusion
Oxygen and Nitrogen by Inert Gas Fusion


Transform your oxygen/nitrogen determination in inorganic materials, ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and refractory materials with our ON736 elemental analyzer. It features an easy-to-use, touchscreen Cornerstone® software, a high-performance detector design, and a number of optional, customizable features to provide the optimal solution for your lab.

  • High performance detector design
    • Thermostatic construction protects from ambient temperature fluctuations
    • Optimized emitter control and detection circuitry
  • Choice of either argon and helium carrier gas
  • Increase laboratory productivity with automation options
    • Available autocleaner minimizes the need for manual cleaning between analysis
    • 20-position shuttle loader for both crucibles and samples
  • Boom-mounted touch-screen interface provides improved ergonomics and intuitive operation
  • State-of-the-art infrared (IR) detection for oxygen determination and thermal conductivity (TC) detection of nitrogen

Applications

The 736 series is ideal for the following applications: inorganic materials, ferrous and nonferrous alloys, copper, aluminum, and refractory materials.

The ON736 Oxygen/Nitrogen system is designed for simultaneous measurement of oxygen and nitrogen content of steel and other inorganic materials. The instrument features custom software designed specifically for
touch operation.

A pre-weighed sample is placed in a graphite crucible which is heated in an impulse furnace to release analyte gases. Oxygen present in the sample reacts with the graphite crucible to form CO and CO2. An inert gas carrier, typically helium, sweeps the liberated gases out of the furnace and through a Mass Flow Controller. The gas then flows through a heated reagent, where the CO is oxidized to form CO2, and H2 is oxidized to form H2O. Oxygen is detected as CO2 using a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) cell. CO2 and H2O are then scrubbed out of the carrier gas stream. A Thermal Conductivity (TC) detector is used to detect the remaining nitrogen.

The detection system is comprised of both NDIR and TC detectors. NDIR cells are based on the principle that analyte gas molecules absorb infrared (IR) energy at unique wavelengths within the IR spectrum. Incident IR energy at these wavelengths is absorbed as the gases pass through the IR absorption cells. TC detection takes advantage of the difference in thermal conductivity between carrier and analyte gases. Resistive TC filaments are placed in a flowing stream of carrier gas and heated by a bridge circuit. As analyte gas is introduced into the carrier stream, the rate at which heat transfers from the filaments will change producing a measurable deflection in the bridge circuit.

The concentration of an unknown sample is determined relative to calibration standards. To reduce interferences from instrument drift, reference measurements of pure carrier gas are made prior to each analysis.

 

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736 Series Details

Oxygen/Nitrogen by Inert Gas Fusion with the 736 Series

  • Models
    1. ON736 Oxygen/Nitrogen

    1. N736 Nitrogen

    1. O736 Oxygen

836 Series Elemental Analyser | Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Detection | LECO

836 Series Elemental Analyser
Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Detection


The ONH836 Oxygen/Nitrogen/Hydrogen Elemental Analyzer is designed for wide-range measurement of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen content of inorganic materials, ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and refractory materials using the inert gas fusion technique. Automation and our Cornerstone® brand touch-screen software come together to streamline your analysis, while a robust design ensures reliability.

 

  • A robust sample loading area simplifies routine maintenance and minimizes atmospheric contamination
  • Triple IR cells for oxygen detection allows the widest detection range in the industry
  • Increase laboratory productivity with automation options
    • Available autocleaner minimizes the need for manual cleaning between analysis
    • 20-position shuttle loader for both crucibles and samples
  • Boom-mounted touch-screen interface provides improved ergonomics and intuitive operation
  • State-of-the-art infrared (IR) and thermal conductivity (TC) detectors, with no moving parts and no manual adjustments
  • Improved TC cell stability
    • Bypassable OMI-2 carrier gas scrubber for enhanced TC cell stability
    • Patented Dyanamic Flow Compensation further enhances TC cell stability

Optional O836Si Model

  • Unmatched low-level sensitivity with solid-state infrared detection, novel sample loading, and programmable impulse furnace
  • Ideal for oxygen detection in the silicon industry (silicon wafers), metals industry, and the electronics industry (high purity copper)

Applications

The 836 series is ideal for the following applications: inorganic materials, ferrous and nonferrous alloys, copper, aluminum, titanium, and refractory materials.

The ONH836 Oxygen/Nitrogen/Hydrogen system is designed for simultaneous wide-range measurement of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen content of steel, refractory metals, and other inorganic materials. The instrument features custom software designed specifically for touch operation.

A pre-weighed sample is placed in a graphite crucible which is heated in an impulse furnace to release analyte gases. Oxygen present in the sample reacts with the graphite crucible to form CO and CO2. An inert gas carrier, typically helium, sweeps the liberated analyte gases out of the furnace, through a Mass Flow Controller, and through a series of detectors. CO and CO2 are detected using non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) cells. The gas then flows through a heated reagent where the CO is oxidized to form CO2, and H2 is oxidized to form H2O. The gas continues through another set of NDIR cells where H2O and CO2 are detected. The CO2 and H2O are then scrubbed out of the carrier gas stream, leaving the final analyte, nitrogen, as the only impurity.

A patented Dynamic Flow Compensation (DFC) system is used to add carrier gas as a makeup for the gas lost during the scrubbing process. A Thermal Conductivity (TC) detector is used to detect nitrogen. The detection system is comprised of both NDIR and TC detectors. NDIR cells are based on the principle that analyte gas molecules absorb infrared (IR) energy at unique wavelengths within the IR spectrum. Incident IR energy at these wavelengths is absorbed as the gases pass through the IR absorption cells. The complete set of CO and CO2 NDIR cells is required to give the most accurate oxygen results for a wide range of sample types and concentrations. TC detection takes advantage of the difference in thermal conductivity between carrier and analyte gases. Resistive TC filaments are placed in a flowing stream of carrier gas and heated by a bridge circuit. As analyte gas is introduced into the carrier stream, the rate at which heat transfers from the filaments will change producing a measurable deflection in the bridge circuit.

The concentration of an unknown sample is determined relative to calibration standards. To reduce interferences from instrument drift, reference measurements of pure carrier gas are made prior to each analysis.

 

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836 Series Details

Oxygen/Nitrogen/Hydrogen Detection with the 836 Series

  • Models
    1. ONH836 Oxygen/Nitrogen/Hydrogen

    1. ON836 Oxygen/Nitrogen

    1. OH836 Oxygen/Hydrogen

    1. O836 Oxygen

    1. H836 Hydrogen

    1. N836 Nitrogen

    1. NH836 Nitrogen/Hydrogen

    1. O836Si Oxygen for Silicon Wafers


RC612 Multiphase Determinator | Carbon and Water Determination | LECO

RC612 Multiphase Determinator
Carbon and Water Determination


Get fast, reliable carbon and water determination with our RC612. This state-of-the-art instrument quantifies the carbon and water present in various organic and inorganic samples, and identifies the source of several types of carbon content. The RC612 has a small footprint, along with easy-to-use operating software for streamlined analysis.

  • Complies with AWS (ANSI) approved method for Determination of Moisture Content of Welding Fluxes and Welding Electrode Flux Coverings
  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses
  • Easy-to-install combustion tube
  • The large diameter reaction tube supports moisture analysis on a variety of sample types including powders, flat strips, or sections of tubes.
  • Surface, Free, Organic, Inorganic carbon type differentiation
  • Optional rugged 50-position autoloader for automated unattended operation
  • On-board diagnostics to minimize downtime

The RC612 multiphase carbon and hydrogen/moisture determinator quantifies the carbon and water present in various organic and inorganic samples, and identifies the source of several types of carbon content.

The RC612 features a state-of-the-art furnace control system, which allows the temperature of the dual-stage furnace to be programmed from near-ambient to 1100 oC.

Depending on the application, multiple furnace steps can be programmed by the operator and the furnace purged with oxygen or nitrogen, creating oxidizing or inert conditions in which the carbon and water present is combusted or reacted. An afterburner furnace (nominally set to 850 °C) and a secondary oxidation catalyst are included in the flow path to ensure full combustion/reaction of all evolved components. Infrared detection is used to quantify the result either as a weight percentage or as a coating weight (mg/in2).

When combusted in an oxidizing atmosphere (O2), all forms of carbon (except some carbides such as SiC) are converted to CO2. In contrast, organic forms of carbon produce both H2O and CO2. Thus the presence of organic carbon may be verified by finding coincident peaks in H2O and CO2. Water and carbonate are detected when the sample is combusted in an inert (N2) atmosphere, with the furnace catalyst temperatures at 120 oC. In this mode, organic carbon is normally not detected. Additional sources of carbon can often be differentiated by the temperature at which they oxidize or volatilize.

A slow ramping temperature program, from 100 oC to 1000 oC at 20 oC/min, can be used for the analysis of unknown samples. This type of analysis can be used to indicate the temperatures at which the differing forms of carbon are oxidized, thereby enabling the operator to optimize the furnace temperature program to provide more rapid quantitative results for each form of carbon present in this sample type.

 

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RC612 Details

Multi-phase Carbon and Water Determination with the RC612

  • Models
    1. RC612 Multiphase Carbon and Water



744 Series Combustion | Carbon and Sulfur by Combustion | LECO

744 Series Combustion
Carbon and Sulfur by Combustion


Redefine the way you determine carbon and sulfur in metals, ores, and other inorganic materials with our 744 series. Using extensive customer feedback and innovative engineering, the 744 takes advantage of our immersive Cornerstone® brand software platform and a number of features, such as an improved IR cell design and available automation, come together to increase usability, lab productivity, and lower your cost-per-analysis. 

  • High-frequency furnace
    • Integrated oxygen lance floods crucible with high-purity oxygen to promote complete combustion
    • 18 MHz, 2.2 kW induction furnace for rapid and consistent combustion
  • Optional 10-and 60-sample autoloaders available for hours of worry-free operation
  • High-velocity vacuum system keeps dust and debris contained
  • Improved IR cell design
    • Temperature stabilized construction provides increased protection from ambient temperature fluctuations
    • Optimized emitter control and detection circuitry improves IR cell lifetime and long-term stability

Applications

The 744 series is ideal for the following applications: primary steels, ores, finished metals, ceramics, and other inorganic materials.

The CS744 carbon/sulfur analyzer is designed for wide-range measurement of carbon and sulfur content of metals, ores, ceramics, and other inorganic materials. The instrument features custom software designed specifically for touch operation.

A pre-weighed sample of approximately 1 gram is combusted in a stream of oxygen using RF induction to heat the sample. Carbon and sulfur present in the sample are oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and swept by the oxygen carrier through a drying reagent and then through a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) cell, where sulfur is detected as SO2. The gas flow continues past a heated catalyst, where carbon monoxide (CO) is converted to CO2 and where SO2 is converted to sulfur trioxide (SO3), which is subsequently removed by a filter. Carbon is then detected as CO2 by another NDIR cell. A pressure controller is used to maintain constant pressure in the NDIR cells so as to reduce interference from natural variations in atmospheric pressure. The final component in the flow stream is an electronic flow sensor, which is used for diagnostic purposes to monitor the carrier flow.

Non-dispersive infrared cells are based on the principle that CO2 and SO2 absorb infrared (IR) energy at unique wavelengths within the IR spectrum. Incident IR energy at these wavelengths is absorbed as the gases pass through IR absorption cells. The concentration of unknown samples is determined relative to calibration standards. To reduce interferences from instrument drift, reference measurements of pure carrier gas are made prior to each analysis.

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744 Series Details

Carbon and Sulfur by Combustion with the 744 Series

  • Models
    1. CS744 Carbon/Sulfur

    1. C744 Carbon

    1. S744 Sulfur

 
 
 

844 Series Combustion | Carbon and Sulfur Analysis by Combustion | LECO

844 Series Combustion
Carbon and Sulfur Analysis by Combustion


Easily analyze your wide-range carbon and sulfur content with our CS844 for the determination of carbon and sulfur in primary steels, ores, finished metals, ceramics, and other inorganic materials using the combustion technique. State-of-the-art hardware and our exclusive Cornerstone® touch-screen software platform provide your laboratory with increased usability and a lower cost-per-analysis.

  • Maximize laboratory productivity with automation
    • 10- and 60-position shuttle loaders or integrated robotic process loaders available.
    • High-efficiency autocleaner/vacuum system keeps maintenance to a minimum
    • Automatic combustion tube service and exchange system
  • Ergonomic, operator-centered design with a boom-mounted touch-screen interface
  • Improved IR cell design provides dual-range detection and improved lifetime and stability
  • High-efficiency furnace with low-maintenance design reduces the need for additional accelerant and cleaning

Applications

The 844 series is ideal for the following applications: primary steels, ores, finished metals, ceramics, alloys, and other inorganic materials.

The CS844 Carbon/Sulfur system is designed for wide-range measurement of carbon and sulfur content of metals, ores, ceramics, and other inorganic materials. The instrument features custom software designed specifically for touch operation.

A pre-weighed sample of approximately 1 gram is combusted in a stream of purified oxygen using RF induction to heat the sample. Carbon and sulfur present in the sample are oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and swept by the oxygen carrier through a heated dust filter, a drying reagent, and then through two non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) cells, where sulfur is detected as SO2. The gas flow continues past a heated catalyst, where carbon monoxide (CO) is converted to CO2 and where SO2 is converted to sulfur trioxide (SO3), which is subsequently removed by a filter. Carbon is then detected as CO2 by a second pair of NDIR cells. A pressure controller is used to maintain constant pressure in the NDIR cells so as to reduce interference from natural variations in atmospheric pressure. The final component in the flow stream is an electronic flow sensor, which is used for diagnostic purposes to monitor the carrier flow.

Non-dispersive infrared cells are based on the principle that CO2 and SO2 absorb infrared (IR) energy at unique wavelengths within the IR spectrum. Incident IR energy at these wavelengths is absorbed as the gases pass through IR absorption cells. Since absorption is dependent upon the path length, short and long path-length IR cells are provided for measurement of high and low range signals. The software automatically selects which cell to use for optimum measurement. The concentration of unknown samples is determined relative to calibration standards. To reduce interferences from instrument drift, reference measurements of pure carrier gas are made prior to each analysis.

 

 

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844 Series Details

Carbon and Sulfur Analysis by Combustion with the CS844

  • Models
    1. CS844 Carbon/Sulfur

    1. C844 Carbon

    1. S844 Sulfur

    1. CS844ES Enhanced Sulfur, Carbon
    1. S844ES Enhanced Sulfur