The innovative Multi-Mode Source™ (MMS™) takes all of the advantages of the three most common ionization modes—Electron Ionization (EI), Positive Chemical Ionization (PCI), and Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI/ECNI)—and combines them into one easy-to-use source. No more hardware switching, no more alignment issues: with the MMS, changing ionization modes is as easy as a click of a button.
The new MMS has great mass accuracy and high resolution on pseudo-molecular ions, which complements the traditional Electron Ionization Source (HR-EI) to provide the comprehensive characterization of unknowns. By not touching the hardware, peaks stay aligned between the ionization modes. Each of the three modes is avaible for GC-MS and GCxGC-MS analyses on both the Pegasus® GC-HRT+ and the Pegasus GC-HRT+ 4D.
Don’t limit yourself to just one approach. Ask about the new MMS to see what you’ve been missing!
The volume of GCxGC data can quickly become overwhelming. Multiple tables of thousands of analytes can require months of data mining at a pixel level to find the minute differences between data sets, and even those results are plagued with false positives from normal chromatographic variation.
ChromaTOF Tile revolutionizes how GCxGC data is analyzed. This software compares GCxGC data files quickly and easily. Statistically significant differences rise to the top so you can spend less time finding the differences and more time finding out what they mean.
"ChromaTOF Tile is an enabling technology that has reduced our peak picking time from 10 days to 10 minutes. We are now comparing groups of peak-rich samples from complex studies that would have previously required complicated, custom-built solutions."
Designed for Sample Group Differentiation
Optional heatmap tables are incorporated throughout the interface to give instant feedback on relative intensities. ChromaTOF Tile finds differences between two or more classes of samples, such as: biomarkers distinguishing healthy from not; off-odor detection in food samples that passed or failed quality control; water samples up- and down-stream from an outflow source; petroleum samples from various geographical origins; and anything else you can imagine.
The Problem: Comparing sets of chromatograms can be a tedious and lengthy process. With the need to compensate for chromatographic misalignment and count thousands of analytes, even automatic sample identification could take days, weeks, or even months. Our customers asked us to help provide a way to expedite data analysis.
The Solution: Utilizing customer data – real samples – we set out to find a solution. In consultation with Dr. Robert Synovec, we found that if we utilized Fisher Ratios, we could partition the data into a set of regions (‘tiles’) and compare the regionalized (‘tiled’) data, rather than each individual pixel.
After essentially averaging the values in a region, our ChromaTOF Tile software compares two corresponding regions to assess the value of difference between these regions. Presented in a graphical means, the software provides users with indicators of low-to-high variance among regions.
These graphic heatmaps quickly and easily draw users’ eyes to areas of high variance, or high interest, reducing the time you spend looking for data outliers. Visually, you can see where the differences are and know what data you should be looking at for your comparisons.
ChromaTOF Tile does not change the data that is supplied. By comparing tiles instead of pixels, the system can reduce alignment shift flags to better show only the significant differences between the data sets.
"My research group and I at the University of Washington in Seattle are delighted to see our research come to fruition in the release of ChromaTOF Tile. We anticipate that the GCxGC users community will benefit greatly from this discovery-based data analysis tool to address the many challenges stemming from the supervised analysis of complex data sets."
“With state-of-the-art analytical methods like comprehensive 2D GC-TOF MS it is simple to generate lots of data, but it is only with the ChromaTOF Tile software that we can translate these into meaningful information and knowledge.
“In aerosol science we are commonly interested in the differences between several sets of samples to e.g. compare different sources or atmospheric aging regimes. For this, ChromaTOF Tile has quickly proven to be a very convenient and straight-forward tool for the evaluation of complex GCxGC data.”
“When conducting biomarker discovery studies, biases in your data (e.g., batch effects) can send you down the wrong path. The PCA capabilities of ChromaTOF Tile are a quick and powerful way to see the structure of your data, including inherent biases that they possess. This gives users the opportunity to correct for those biases before or after statistical analyses, making putative biomarkers more robust.”
LECO's QuadJet™ SD is the ideal solution for samples which arrive in your lab. By combining the sensitivity of Flame Ionization Detection (FID) with the increased chromatographic resolution of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC), the QuadJet SD delivers a better measure of the actual components of your sample than a straight GC analysis. No other system available on the market can deliver the same reduction in noise and error as the QuadJet SD.
When performing GC-FID analysis, most laboratories quantify compounds using the area of the FID signal. Real world samples are rarely clean and straightforward. For example, a diesel sample can have thousands of different compounds in a single injection. The more compounds in a sample, the higher the chance of coelution; this coelution will increase the FID signal, thus creating a high bias error in the measurement. With GCxGC performing two separate chromatographic separations in one experiment, the accuracy of the FID measurement is maintained.
Due to the orthogonal nature of the separation mechanism in GCxGC, coeluting compounds are easily pulled apart in a single run. True GCxGC instruments, such as the LECO QuadJet SD, improve upon simply running the same sample through two different columns by incorporating a modulation device. Peaks eluting from the primary column are quantitatively segmented into smaller sections prior to release onto the second column. This segmenting, along with the cryo-focusing of the modulator, can deliver peak widths as narrow as 50 ms to the second column.
There is no better-performing modulator for GCxGC than thermal modulation, and not even other thermal modulators can match up to the ruggedness, reliability, and performance of LECO's GCxGC modulator. With LECO's QuadJet SD, modulation is accomplished via a dual-stage, quad-jet thermal modulator positioned between the two columns. LECO's thermal modulator allows for on-column cryo-focusing within the GCxGC system, providing increased peak detectability and increased separation of coeluting compounds for an order-of-magnitude increase in signal-to-noise.
LECO's Consumable-Free Modulator (which does not utilize Liquid Nitrogen) is an available option, saving time and money without sacrificing performance when modulating moderately volatile compounds.
LECO's QuadJet SD is designed to give you the upper hand in laboratory productivity. Its ease-of-use and industry's best secondary oven for the secondary column allows for improved analytical results. When you take the step to the next dimension in gas chromatography, make sure you're taking the step that will let you see what you've been missing.
Bring the Power of Accurate Mass and Confidence to your Identification Problems
LECO's Identification Grading System (IGS) eases data review by allowing users to quickly see, justify, have confidence in, and report on which chemicals are in a particular sample. This in turn allows a user to make confident decisions on what to do next.
The IGS uses all the available chemical information generated from the Pegasus® GC-HRT+ 4D to add confidence to your unknown unknown identification process.
The IGS gives a grade to a particular identification based on 4 criteria:
The higher the value of the grade, the more confident you can be in your identification.
The true power of identification can only be realized with the combined power of GCxGC and high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS).
Born out of the United States of America Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s Non-Targeted Analysis Collaborative Trial (ENTACT), the IGS is LECO’s solution to the time-intensive process of data review.
Take for example the unfiltered deconvolution results from a GCxGC-TOFMS analysis of a sample from the EPA's ENTACT project (below, left). By applying the IGS filter, we can quickly view only the most confident indentifications. This simplification is dramatic and enables you to immediately begin investigating the "unknown unknowns," as indicated by the arrows in the diagram image on the right.
Left: Initial HRD (n=4800). Right: IGS > 2 (n=245)
Of the known compounds entered into the sample from this particular example (which was provided to LECO as a blind sample), IGS identified approximately 80% of the known peaks. The combination of GCxGC and high resolution TOF was proven to be necessary for this confidence. Read "Identifying Small Molecules via High Resolution Mass Spectrometry" for more information.
Read more about how LECO utilized the Indentification Grading System in the EPA ENTACT Study:
Save time and effort in your laboratory by easily identifying unknowns and having more confidence in your library hits. The chemical ionization (HR-CI) source for the Pegasus GC-HRT+ allows users to dramatically change their high resolution GC/MS information with never before seen mass accuracy and resolution on pseudo-molecular ions. The Pegasus GC-HRT+ is available with both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) sources, providing the option of comparison with classic library spectra (EI), and preservation of the molecular ion (CI). Together, the HR-CI source and the Pegasus GC-HRT+ provide a complete package for high-throughput/high-information content analysis, with resolution up to 50,000 FWHM, mass accuracies less than 1 ppm, and acquisition rates up to 200 spectra/second—all with high-integrity isotopic abundance measurements to facilitate rich information content and high-confidence analyte identification. Click here to learn more.
Click here to view our Technical Brief on Mass Accuracy
Do you want to have the ultimate confidence in your library hit? LECO’s AML allows you to compare accurate mass new sample data against an accurate mass library data set. The AML rank provides a similarity score that uses accurate mass sample data the way it should be used. Click here to learn more.
Thermal modulation delivers the highest performance of any available modulator for GCxGC. Other types of thermal or valve-based modulators do not match up to the ruggedness, reliability, and performance of LECO's GCxGC modulator. With LECO's GCxGC system, modulation is accomplished via a dual-stage, quad-jet thermal modulator positioned between the two columns. LECO's thermal modulator allows for on-column cryo-focusing within the GCxGC system, providing increased peak detectability and increased separation of coeluting compounds.
With LECO's Consumable-Free Modulator you can now choose the compound volatility range you need to modulate. If your application requires you to modulate at extreme high volatility, the traditional LN cooled modulator is recommended. However, if your method requires you to modulate moderately volatile compounds, the consumable-free modulator will save you time and money without sacrificing performance.
Our innovative FLUX GC×GC flow modulator was designed with one goal in mind—to make GC×GC more routine, accessible, and easier for you. The flow modulator's concept is based on the sound and easily understood principles first articulated by Seeley et al. on diverting flow. This extraordinarily simple design comprising of a cross shape and a sideways T, is not only easy to setup and get started, but its ease-of-use makes it the most cost-effective option for GC×GC analysis.
This flow-based modulator is perfect for those who want to perform robust GC×GC analysis, but who don't need the sensitivity of standard quad jet thermal modulation. Ideal samples should be complex, but relatively concentrated. Appropriate applications include petroleum and fragrance analyses such as the classic weathered crude oil example pictured below, which shows a GC×GC plot generated on our PEGASUS® BT platform using the FLUX flow modulator..
The first and secondary capillary columns are connected together through a simple tube with a fixed gap between the columns. A flow of gas (helium) is then used to inject into the second column or divert to waste. The precise timing and flows are all handled by our integrated software, therefore you just have to click one button to setup and begin performing flow modulation GC×GC on our Pegasus BT platform. .
Furthermore, no complex spreadsheets are needed to understand your method. This simple and robust design does not require cryogens to carry out GC×GC, which saves time and boosts efficiency in your lab.
About Flow Modulation by downloading our white paper "The operation, use, and concepts behind a diverting flow technique."
Developed exclusively by LECO, ChromaTOF is uniquely designed to meet the needs of today’s laboratory professionals by processing and analyzing the large amounts of data that are acquired with our time-of-flight instruments. ChromaTOF offers seamless control of both the instrument and its accessories, as well as an intuitive interface with highly integrated data processing. ChromaTOF is the first mass spectrometry data system to fully accommodate multidimensional chromatographic data (GC×GC).
What Makes ChromaTOF Unique?
ChromaTOF Version 5.0 encapsulates the industry’s most advanced qualitative and quantitative capabilities in one user-friendly data-handling system. Supports both Pegasus BT and Pegasus GC-HRT+ instrument platforms.
Features Exclusively for Pegasus GC-HRT+
Pegasus BT Features
|Pegasus Instrument Model||Latest
|5.10||Addition of the L-PAL3 and
Spectral Analysis Tools
|5.10||Addition of the L-PAL3 and
Spectral Analysis Tools
4D, HT (incl “C”)
Added nominal mass data export
Identification Grading System and
Used by industry leaders for over 15 years, ChromaTOF-GC supports GC×GC deconvolution, visualization, and reporting.
Simply GC×GC from LECO is a free tool designed to walk you through the steps of creating an optimized GC×GC method for your complex samples. Create a GC×GC method from scratch, or convert an existing 1D method to GC×GC. The tool will provide logical, step-by-step instructions to determine the secondary oven offset, second dimension column length, and experimentally evaluate stationary phases and peak capacity. Simply GC×GC takes a simple approach to GC×GC, helping you avoid unnecessary testing and streamline your method development cycle.
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Available exclusively from LECO, our L-PAL3 autosampler offers increased vial capacity, discrimination-free GC injections (ultrafast injections), an automatic tool exchange to switch between injector types (liquid, headspace, or SPME), minimized carryover, and the sensing of vial bottoms to avoid mis-injections. All of these advantages come on a highly robust and integrated platform. The LECO L-PAL3 GC autosampler allows you to safely focus on identifying unknowns in your samples without experiencing downtime and uncertainty in your lab.
This CTC-based robot combines an autosampler and injector that operates in three dimensions of space, providing everything needed to perform standard liquid injections. This package includes a 5-position solvent wash station, tool for liquid syringe injections, mounting kit for 7890B GC, and a single tray holder with three trays (54-positions each) for 2 mL vials. This is a non-upgradable system.
This CTC-based robot combines an autosampler and injector that operates in three dimensions of space. It provides everything needed to perform standard liquid injections and static headspace injections. This package includes a heated agitator, 5-position solvent wash station, tool for liquid syringe injections, heated tool for headspace syringe, mounting kit for 7890B GC, and two tray holders; one with three trays (54-positions each) for two mL vials, and the second with three trays (15-positions each) for 10/20 mL vials. This configuration requires a manual exchange of tools between headspace and liquid injections.
This CTC-based robot combines an autosampler and injector that operates in three dimensions of space. It provides everything needed to perform standard liquid injections and all SPME-type analyses (immersion, headspace). This package includes a heated agitator, 5-position solvent wash station, tools for liquid syringe and SPME fibers, SPME fiber conditioning station, mounting kit for 7890B GC, and two tray holders; one with three trays (54-positions each) for two ml vials, and the second with three trays (15-positions each) for 10/20 mL vials. This configuration requires a manual exchange of tools between SPME and liquid injections.
This CTC-based robot combines an autosampler and injector that operates in 3 dimensions of space. It provides everything needed to perform standard liquid, headspace, and SPME injections. This model allows for automatic switching of injection types, so method development can be automated. This package includes a heated agitator, 5-position solvent wash station, tools for headspace, liquid syringe and SPME fibers, and SPME fiber conditioning station, mounting kit for 7890B GC, and two tray holders; one with three trays (54-positions each) for two mL vials, and the second with three trays (15-positions each) for 10/20 mL vials.
L-PAL3 GC for Liquid Injections
L-PAL3 GC for Liquid and Headspace Injections
L-PAL3 GC for Liquid and SPME Injections
LECO GC×GC combined with Electron Capture or Flame Ionization Detectors offer you the resolving power of a GC×GC system combined with our advanced ChromaTOF® software for an increase in efficiency and productivity for samples that are too complex for a single-channel detector system. Ideal for everyday quality control and production needs, these GC×GC systems provide you with all the tools necessary to achieve exceptional results in a cost-effective package.
In GC analysis, chemical compounds are separated by their interaction with the stationary phase in a GC column. Sometimes, however, the separation is not sufficient to provide identification and/or quantification of all compounds. In many situations involving simple sample analysis, the inability to separate two compounds on a GC column with one stationary phase may be resolved by the use of a different column with a different stationary phase. However, as samples become more complex, the simple substitution of one chromatographic stationary phase for another may result in improvements in separation between some compounds with loss of separation between others. In this situation, the combined separation provided by each of two stationary phases is required. As opposed to limited techniques such as heart-cutting, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) provides superior chromatographic resolution across the entire sample.
In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) all of the analyte passes from the first column through the second. Compounds eluting from the first chromatographic column are trapped, and then systematically injected into the second column to obtain the second separation. In order to retain the chromatographic resolution obtained from the first separation, the second orthogonal separation must take place quickly. As such, it is important that compounds be introduced into this column quickly and in a narrow chromatographic band. In the LECO GCxGC system, this is accomplished by cryogenic dual-stage modulation. With cryogenic modulation, compounds eluting from the first chromatographic column are trapped in a narrow zone in the column as it passes through the modulator. When this zone is rapidly heated, the trapped compounds pass into the second chromatographic column as a narrow band, allowing for the highest possible resolution in the second separation.
LECO now offers . In order to properly trap and modulate analytes more volatile than n-octane (C8 n-alkane) the lowest achievable modulation temperatures are required. Reaching these low temperatures requires the use of a cryogen such as Liquid Nitrogen (LN2). LECO's LN2 modulator delivers the ability to modulate these volatile analytes. However, the use and management of LN2 dewars in a laboratory can be a hindrance to productivity. The Consumable-Free modulator is, therefore, an excellent choice for laboratories hesitant to take on the management of LN2 dewars and who do not require modulation of volatile analytes.
GCxGC with LN2 Cooled Thermal Modulator
GC×GC with Consumable-Free Modulator
Liquid Nitrogen, automated fill
Optional inlets available (including S/SL, PTV, and MMI)
The Pegasus GC-HRT+ 4D combines the highest performance GC×GC and TOFMS tools on the market with High Resolution Deconvolution® (HRD®). Ideal for the most complex samples, users are able to find more analytes than ever before and confidently identify unknown components. ChromaTOF® brand software, designed specifically for HRT+ instrumentation and GC×GC support, adds advanced qualitative and quantitative capabilities to an all-in-one user-friendly data system.
The Pegasus GC-HRT+ 4D provides the capability to obtain high-resolution mass spectral data using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). GC×GC provides high peak capacity by trapping compounds eluting from the first chromatographic column and then systematically injecting them into the second column to obtain the second separation. The separation on the second chromatographic phase is completed in seconds, resulting in very narrow chromatographic peaks (<200 milliseconds).
To obtain sufficient data to define a 2D chromatographic peak, acquisition rates of at least 100 spectra/second are required. With the Pegasus GC-HRT+ 4D, data acquisition rates of up to 200 spectra/second can be utilized, giving sufficient data density to obtain spectral deconvolution of the chromatographic peaks. Combined, LECO's GC×GC chromatography and the Pegasus GC-HRT+ provide the ultimate solution in complex sample characterization.
Pegasus GC-HRT+ 4D with Liquid Nitrogen Thermal Modulator
Pegasus GC-HRT+ 4D with Cryogen-Free Modulator
The Pegasus BT 4D offers enhanced sensitivity by coupling our benchtop Pegasus BT with a high performance GC×GC modulation system. This combination gives the Pegasus BT 4D the ability to interrogate challenging samples where the best sensitivity is needed. Unique and powerful software and hardware features simplify quantitation, while also dramatically making GC×GC easy-to-use and understand.
Our traditional thermal modulation system provides the highest sensitivity available on the market for those analyzing the most complex samples.
Our new FLUX™ flow modulation system is an excellent option for those looking for added capability over one dimensional GC.
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a technique that has been around for over 25 years. Some may argue that the technique has been over-hyped, and that it is a complicated research tool that doesn't fit into routine analytical laboratories. However, several routine validated GC×GC methods have demonstrated that the technique is accurate, precise, and robust. Research has shown the benefits of GC×GC in a wide variety of applications (e.g. environmental, metabolomics, petroleum, food safety, fragrance). The benefits include increased peak capacity (i.e. resolution), structured two-dimensional chromatograms (i.e. contour plots), and sensitivity enhancement. The merits of GC×GC as a separation science are clear, but how will it benefit a routine laboratory? Multiple analyte classes can be combined into a single analysis to save instrument and sample preparation time. Manual review time for non-target screening methods can be reduced with the increased peak resolution of a GC×GC analysis by creating a better library match leading to faster, more confident peak identification. Sample characterization is improved with a GC×GC analysis which increases confidence in decisions based on analytical results. The extra resolution afforded by the GC×GC analysis allows the use of more economical detectors, like the flame ionization detector (FID) or electron capture detector (ECD).
Download this free whitepaper: Benefits of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography (GC×GC) for a Routine Laboratory, authored by Michelle Misselwitz, for more information on how GC×GC can benefit your laboratory.
Pegasus BT 4D with FLUX Flow Modulator
Pegasus BT 4D with Liquid Nitrogen Thermal Modulator
Pegasus BT 4D with Cryogen-Free Thermal Modulator
Now with even more sensitivity than ever before, the Pegasus GC-HRT+ is the perfect tool for meeting the challenges of today’s highly complex analytical demands. This high performance mass spectrometer features industry leading mass accuracy, full mass range acquisition with exceptional speed, isotopic abundance, and mass resolution, all available within 1 injection.
Folded Flight Path® (FFP®) technology and a novel data acquisition system enable resolution of 50,000 FWHM, mass accuracies less than 1 ppm, and acquisition rates up to 200 spectra/second—all with the goal to facilitate rich analyte finding and high-confidence analyte identification.